Sunday is a very special day for those in the Lord’s church. It is the first day of the week, the day we assemble together to worship our God in spirit and truth (John 4:24) while encouraging each other to love and good deeds (Heb. 10:24-25). It is also the day we observe communion or the Lord’s Supper. The majority of denominations in Christendom do not do this. Thus, many regular visitors from other religious bodies have seen us observe communion each Sunday and wonder why we don’t partake of it on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis. It is proper that New Testament Christians know exactly why we practice what we do (1 Pet. 3:15).
First, God commands us to have authority from His Son on what we do concerning the Lord’s Supper and everything else (Col. 3:17). Jesus speaks to us today through the inspired writings of the New Testament (Heb. 1:1-2; 2:1-4; 1 Cor. 14:37; 2 Pet. 1:20-21), so we must go there to find the authority of how and when to partake of communion.
There we read of how Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper on the night in which He was betrayed (1 Cor. 11:23), which was a Thursday night. So why do we not partake of communion on Thursdays? It is because the church of Christ was not yet in existence when He instituted the Supper.
On that night, Jesus said to the apostles, “But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom” (Matt. 26:29; cf. Mark 14:25, emp. added). Luke records, “…for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God…for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes” (Luke 22:16, 18, emp. added), and then after instituting the Supper, “…just as My Father has granted Me a kingdom, I grant you that you may eat and drink at my table in My kingdom…” (vs. 29-30, emp. added).
Note that Christ promised them He would not partake of the Supper with them until “that day” when He drinks it with them in His Father’s kingdom, that it would fulfilled in the kingdom of God, and they would eat and drink at His table in His kingdom. This is significant because Scripture teaches that the church of Christ is God’s kingdom. Both Jesus and John the Baptizer preached that God’s kingdom was “at hand” (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; Mark 1:15), i.e., that it was coming soon. Jesus told His disciples that the kingdom would come in their lifetimes (Mark 9:1). He promised Peter He would build “My church” upon the rock of Peter’s confession, and then promised to give Peter “the keys of the kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 16:15-19).
Do you see how Christ refers interchangeably to the church and kingdom, thereby proving they are the same? All three terms are always talked about in these passages in the future tense, signifying that at the time they were not in existence but would soon come in power. Keeping this in mind, remember that before His ascension He answered a question about when the kingdom would come by telling the apostles that they would receive power when the Holy Spirit came upon them (Acts 1:6-8), a promise fulfilled ten days later on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4). This was also the day three thousand souls were added by the Lord to His church (Acts 2:41, 47). Starting in Acts 2, the rest of the New Testament would always interchangeably refer to the kingdom of God and Christ’s church as having already come and presently existing (Rom. 14:17; 16:16; 1 Cor. 1:2; Col. 1:13; 1 Thess. 2:12; Heb. 12:28; Rev. 1:4, 6, 9).
Thus, the kingdom of heaven — the Lord’s church — came on the day of Pentecost, a Jewish holy day referred to as the Feast of Weeks in Leviticus 23:15-16. From this passage, we learn that the day of Pentecost (a Greek term meaning “fiftieth day”) would always be “fifty days to the day after the seventh Sabbath.” In other words, Pentecost was always observed on the first day of the week. Thus, God’s kingdom — the church of Christ — came on a Sunday.
Remember how we saw earlier that Christ promised He would not again drink of the fruit of the vine of the Lord’s Supper with His disciples until “that day” when the kingdom of God came (Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:16, 18)? The day the kingdom came was on a Sunday.
This is why Luke records that one of the very first things these newly baptized and converted three thousand souls did on the first day of the church’s existence that Sunday was to “continually devote themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of the bread and to prayer” (Acts 2:41-42, emp. added). “The breaking of the bread” refers to the Lord’s Supper (1 Cor. 10:16-17; cf. 11:23-25). Thus, the apostles directed the Jerusalem church to observe communion on the day the kingdom came and the church began, which was the first day of the week. The fact that they were “continually” doing so suggests by definition that it was a fixed habit.
Further evidence that this is so is found in Luke’s account of the church at Troas (Acts 20:7). As with the Jerusalem church, these Christians gathered together for the purpose to observe the Lord’s Supper (“break bread”) on Sunday, and did so with the apostle Paul’s approval. Additionally, remember Paul’s directions to both the churches of Galatia and Corinth to take up collections every first day of the week (1 Cor. 16:1-2). This implies that he knew they had the assembling together every Sunday. Since he taught the same thing at every congregation (1 Cor. 4:17; cf. 1 Cor. 16:1), we can be confident that all the early churches gathered together to observe communion and give of their means on Sundays under his direction. And just as the Jews under the Old Law knew that God’s command to observe the Sabbath applied to every Sabbath (Ex. 20:8-11; Num. 15:32-36), we can learn from their example (1 Cor. 10:11) and know that the New Testament teaching concerning communion applies to every Sunday.
Many profess to be followers of Christ and observe communion only a few times a year, or during special occasions like weddings. Undoubtedly this is done sincerely, but their practices nonetheless are traditions of men (Matt. 15:7-9). Christians must have authority from Christ on everything we do, and we find that authority only in the New Testament. In those pages we read of Jesus promising not to partake of communion with His disciples again until the day the kingdom came, a Sunday. We read in Scripture of how the early Christians observed the Lord’s Supper only on Sundays. This is how we can and must observe communion each Sunday in the name of Christ and be confident that He is with us when we do so as He promised (Matt. 18:20; 26:29; cf. Heb. 2:11-12).